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    Investigation 1: Goldfish & Guppies Investigation 2: Land & Water Snails
      1.1 The Structure of Goldfish
    1.2 Caring for Goldfish
    1.3 Goldfish Behavior
    1.4 Comparing Guppies to Goldfish
      2.1 Land Snails
    2.2 Snail Races
    2.3 Observing Water Snails
    2.4 Shells
           
    Investigation 3: Big and Little Worms Investigation 4: Pillbugs & Sow Bugs
      3.1 The Structure of Redworms
    3.2 Redworm Behavior
    3.3 Comparing Redworms to Nightcrawlers
      4.1 Isopod Observation
    4.2 Identifying Isopods
    4.3 Isopod Races (optional)
    4.4 Animals Living Together

     


    Investigation 1: Goldfish & Guppies

    Students explore the structures and behaviors of goldfish. They feed the fish and enrich the environment in which the fish live. They compare the structures and behaviors of the goldfish to those of other fish, guppies. Students compare photos of fish and read about fish.

    • Science & Engineering Practices: Asking questions, Developing and using models, Planning and carrying out investigations, Analyzing and interpreting data, Constructing explanations, Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information.
    • Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns, Cause and effect, Systems and system models, Structure and function

    1.1 The Structure of Goldfish

    Key Activity - What Students Do

    Students observe goldfish living in a simple aquarium. They look for and name different parts of the fish, such as fins, tail, mouth, and gills. They look to see if all the fish are alike, or if there are differences such as color and size. They draw a picture and dictate a sentence to record what they see.

    Key Learning/NGSS Connections - What do Students figure out?

    Fish have structures that help them live and grow.

    Big Idea - Focus Questions

    What are the parts of a goldfish?

    Connection to Anchoring Phenomenon

    Start thinking about similarities and differences. In the video there are both male and female Mallard ducks (Males have Green heads, females are mostly brown.)  There are also a couple of oter types of birds near the beginning.  Looking at details will lead to understanding that there are many varieties of animals.

    Formative Assessment Task

    Students can glue their Fish Outline drawings in their science notebooks and add labels or dictate a sentence.

    1.2 Caring for Goldfish

    Key Activity - What Students Do

    Students learn how to care for goldfish, giving them food and fresh water, and adding plants to the aquarium. With each addition, students describe the fish behavior they observe.

    Key Learning/NGSS Connections - What do Students figure out?

    Fish are animals and have basic needs.

    Big Idea - Focus Questions

    What do goldfish need to live?

    Connection to Anchoring Phenomenon

    What are the ducks doing?  What arethe ducks' needs? We see them feeding, sleeping and grooming at various parts of the video.

    Formative Assessment Task

    Have students illustrate their ideas in their science notebook. Let them tape a little fish food on their drawing of the aquarium.

    1.3 Goldfish Behavior

    Key Activity - What Students Do

    Students add a tunnel to the aquarium to observe how the fish respond. They make their own paper aquariums to model the fish behavior they have observed.

    Key Learning/NGSS Connections - What do Students figure out?

    Fish have structures that help them live and grow.

    Big Idea - Focus Questions

    What do goldfish do?

    Connection to Anchoring Phenomenon

    Ducks have a variety of behaviors.

    Formative Assessment Task

    A cutout fish taped to the end of a string and attached to the page can be used to show what fish do. Students can illustrate the aquarium and make additions from the word bank.

    1.4 Comparing Guppies to Goldfish

    Key Activity - What Students Do

    Students compare the structures and behaviors of guppies to those of goldfish, and identify the guppies by gender.

    Key Learning/NGSS Connections - What do Students figure out?

    Different kinds of fish have similar but different structures and behaviors.

    Big Idea - Focus Questions

    How are guppies and goldfish different? How are they the same?

    Connection to Anchoring Phenomenon

    Ducks are different in many ways from the other birds shown briefly at the beginning.  They vary from other birds in many ways, as well.

    Formative Assessment Task

    Students can use the content chart for a guide or illustrate their own answers to the focus question.

    Investigation 2: Land and Water Snails

    Students observe the structures and behaviors of two kinds of water snails. Students work with a variety of seashells, discussing similarities and differences in their size, shape, color, and texture. Students must match shell pairs, make designs, and create patterns.

    • Science & Engineering Practices: Asking questions, Planning and carrying out investigations, Analyzing and interpreting data, Constructing explanations, Engaging in argument from evidence, Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information.
    • Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns, Cause and effect, Systems and system models, Structure and function

    2.1 Land Snails

    Key Activity - What Students Do

    Students get to know one species of land snail. They handle the snails, observe their features, and see how they interact with objects.

    Key Learning/NGSS Connections - What do Students figure out?

    Snails are animals and have basic needs—water, air, food, and space with shelter.

    Big Idea - Focus Questions

    What are the parts of a land snail?

    Connection to Anchoring Phenomenon

    The ducks have many parts that help them meet their needs.  Consider the feet - webbed feet are great for swimming.

    Formative Assessment Task

    Students can glue their Land Snail Outline drawings in their science notebooks, then add labels or dictate a sentence.

    2.2 Snail Races

    Key Activity - What Students Do

    Students observe one aspect of snail behavior, how land snails move. The investigation concludes with a snail race for the lettuce.

    Key Learning/NGSS Connections - What do Students figure out?

    Snails have senses.

    Big Idea - Focus Questions

    What do land snails do?

    Connection to Anchoring Phenomenon

    Ducks have senses.  We knoe they see as we see them interact with others.  Consider other senses...

    Formative Assessment Task

    Have students illustrate their ideas. They can tape a bit of snail food (lettuce) in their science notebook to show what snails eat. A small drawing of a snail can be cut out and glued to a length of yarn, then attached to the page, to illustrate their words.

    2.3 Observing Water Snails

    Key Activity - What Students Do

    Students are introduced to aquatic snails. They investigate their physical characteristics and behavior, and compare land and aquatic snails for similarities and differences.

    Key Learning/NGSS Connections - What do Students figure out?

    Different kinds of snails have some structures and behaviors that are the same and some that are different.

    Big Idea - Focus Questions

    How are land snails and aquatic snails the same? How are they different?

    Connection to Anchoring Phenomenon

    (as above)

    Formative Assessment Task

    Students can draw the two snails to illustrate differences. Those who are beginning to write can copy words from the class chart made during wrap-up.

    2.4 Shells

    Key Activity - What Students Do

    Students observe seashells. Using their experience with living snails, they look for shells that they think might have belonged to relatives of the water snail they observed. They organize the shells into pairs or groups and give rationales for their decisions.

    Key Learning/NGSS Connections - What do Students figure out?

    Shells differ in size, shape, pattern, and texture.

    Big Idea - Focus Questions

    How can shells be grouped?

    Connection to Anchoring Phenomenon

    Not all birds look the same.

    Formative Assessment Task

    Draw two circles on students’ notebook pages. Inside, have students draw shells from the two groups they made. Encourage students to use the word bank to label their circles.

     

    After investigations 1 and 2 are complete, have a class discussion using the following frame to collect students thinking:

     T-chart  

    Use the following sentence stem to model writing a sentence using the information collected.

    Fish and snails both _____________________________.

    Remove the model sentence. Then have students use a blank sentence stem to complete their own sentences in their science notebooks. (Sentence stems can be printed off and glued into notebook or written in by students.)


    Investigation 3: Big and Little Worms

    Students dig for redworms, rinse them off, and look at their structures. They study their behavior. They construct worm jars and provide for the needs of the composting worms. Students observe how the worms change the plant material into soil. They compare the redworms to night crawlers, which are much larger.

    • Science & Engineering Practices: Asking questions, Developing and using models, Planning and carrying out investigations, Analyzing and interpreting data, Constructing explanations, Engaging in argument from evidence, Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information.
    • Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns, Cause and effect, Systems and system models, Structure and function.

    3.1 The Structure of Redworms

    Key Activity - What Students Do

    Students dig through a terrarium to discover that there are redworms living in the soil. They look for some of the structures they have seen on other animals they have studied so far. They rinse the worms in water to remove the soil and to get a better view.

    Key Learning/NGSS Connections - What do Students figure out?

    Worms have identifiable structures. Worms are animals and have basic needs.

    Big Idea - Focus Questions

    What are the parts of a redworm?

    Connection to Anchoring Phenomenon

    (as before)

    Formative Assessment Task

    Students can glue their Worm Outline drawings into their science notebooks and add labels or dictate a sentence.

    3.2 Redworm Behavior

    Key Activity - What Students Do

    Students focus on the movement and behavior of redworms. They notice how the worm’s body contracts and stretches to move forward. They observe the worm to see if it can move in other directions. They try blocking the worm’s path to see what it does.

    Key Learning/NGSS Connections - What do Students figure out?

    Worm behavior is influenced by conditions in the environment.

    Big Idea - Focus Questions

    What do redworms need to live?

    Connection to Anchoring Phenomenon

    (as before)

    Formative Assessment Task

    Have students illustrate their ideas. They can draw a picture of a drop of water in their science notebook to show what worms do when near water. A small drawing of a worm can be cut out and glued to a length of yarn, then attached to the page, to illustrate their words.

    3.3 Comparing Redworms to Night Crawlers

    Key Activity - What Students Do

    Students discover a new kind of worm in their terrarium—night crawlers. The new worms are much longer and fatter than the redworms. Students observe the two kinds of worms and compare the structures and behaviors of the two animals.

    Key Learning/NGSS Connections - What do Students figure out?

    Different kinds of worms have similar structures and behaviors; they also have differences (size, color).

    Big Idea - Focus Questions

    How are redworms and night crawlers different? How are they the same?

    Connection to Anchoring Phenomenon

    (as before)

    Formative Assessment Task

    After the investigation, have a class discussion using the following frame to collect students thinking:
    T-Chart

    Use the following sentence stem to model writing a sentence using the information collected.

     Redworms and nightcrawlers both _______________________.

    Remove the model sentence. Then have students use a blank sentence stem to complete their own sentences in their science notebooks. (Sentence stems can be printed off and glued into notebook or written in by students.)


    Investigation 4: Pill Bugs and Sow Bugs

    Students observe structures of two kinds of isopods. They learn to identify which are pill bugs and which are sow bugs. They hold isopod races. Students make a terrarium in which all the land animals live together.

    • Science & Engineering Practices: Asking questions, Planning and carrying out investigations, Analyzing and interpreting data, Constructing explanations, Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information.
    • Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns, Cause and effect, Systems and system models, Structure and function.

    4.1 Isopod Observation

    Key Activity - What Students Do

    Students begin by investigating two kinds of isopods (sow bugs and pill bugs). They draw upon knowledge and experience gained from the previous activities to investigate the structures and behaviors of isopods.

    Key Learning/NGSS Connections - What do Students figure out?

    Isopods are animals and have basic needs—water, air, food, and space with shelter.
    There is great diversity among isopods.

    Big Idea - Focus Questions

    What are Isopods?

    Connection to Anchoring Phenomenon

    (as before)

    Formative Assessment Task

    Students can draw their observations into their science notebooks and add labels or dictate a sentence.

    4.2 Identifying Isopods

    Key Activity - What Students Do

    Students compare the isopods and sort them into two groups, based on the different structures and behaviors they observe.

    Key Learning/NGSS Connections - What do Students figure out?

    Different kinds of isopods have some structures and behaviors that are the same and some that are different.

    Big Idea - Focus Questions

    How are pill bugs and sow bugs different? How are they the same?

    Connection to Anchoring Phenomenon

    (as before)

    Formative Assessment Task

    After the investigation, have a class discussion using the following frame to collect students thinking:

    T-chart

    Use the following sentence stem to model writing a sentence using the information collected.

     Pill bugs are different than sow bugs because pill bugs _______________________.

    Remove the model sentence. Then have students use a blank sentence stem to complete their own sentences in their science notebooks. (Sentence stems can be printed off and glued into notebook or written in by students.)

    4.3 Isopod Races (optional)

    Key Activity - What Students Do

    Students conduct isopod races as a way to focus observation on isopod movement.

    Key Learning/NGSS Connections - What do Students figure out?

    Isopod behavior is influenced by conditions in the environment.

    Big Idea - Focus Questions

    How do isopods move?

    Connection to Anchoring Phenomenon

    (as before)

    Formative Assessment Task

    Students can write predictions in their science notebooks using this stem:

     I think __________ will be faster than ___________.

     

     

    4.4 Animals Living Together

    Key Activity - What Students Do

    Students build a class terrarium to observe how several animals live together. They put the isopods and a few snails into the earthworm terrarium, then add objects from the natural environment to create an appropriate habitat for the animals.

    Key Learning/NGSS Connections - What do Students figure out?

    Plants and animals (including humans) depend on the land, water, and air to live and grow. All animals need food in order to live and grow. They obtain their food from plants or from other animals. Plants need water and light to live and grow.

    Big Idea - Focus Questions

    What do animals need to live?

    Connection to Anchoring Phenomenon

    (as before)

    Formative Assessment Task

    Before doing the investigation, have a class discussion involving students referring to their notebooks to contribute what they think should be in an aquarium for fish and water snails, while the teacher models drawing and labeling the aquarium.  Students then draw what they think a terrarium should contain to sustain isopods and worms. They should label their diagram, using as many words as possible from the word wall.

    Consider opportunities for the students to present their terrarium designs, by posting or with an opportunity to describe their ideas.

    After all investigations 1-4, have a class discussion using the following frame to collect students thinking:

     Animals Need

    Use the following sentence stem to model writing a sentence using the information collected.

    All animals need  _____________________________ to live.

    Remove the model sentence. Then have students use a blank sentence stem to complete their own sentences in their science notebooks. (Sentence stems can be printed off and glued into notebook or written in by students.)

     

    The Boston Public Schools has a series of YouTube videos for teachers that give an overview of each of the Investigations: